[124] Meanwhile, the territory of present-day Czech Republic (Kingdom of Bohemia) owned 75% of the whole industrial capacity of former Austria-Hungary. Instead it negotiated a separate peace treaty with Hungary in 1921 that did not contradict the terms of the Trianon treaty.[55]. The Communists remained bitterly unpopular[45] in the Hungarian countryside, where the authority of that government was often nonexistent. French diplomats played the major role in the drafting, and Hungarians were kept in the dark. Risultati del Censimento del 1920. For instance, Romania gained all of Transylvania, which was home to 2,800,000 Romanians, but also contained a significant minority of 1,600,000 Hungarians and about 250,000 Germans. [37] Demarcation lines defining the territory to remain under Hungarian control were made. The Treaty of Trianon was the peace agreement of 1920 to formally end World War I between most of the Allies of World War I and the Kingdom of Hungary, the latter being one of the successor states to Austria-Hungary. [76] 5% of the population of "Hungary proper" were Jews, who were included in speakers of the Hungarian language. [116] Most Hungarians regarded the treaty as an insult to the nation's honour. Thus, the resulting uneasiness and despondency of one part of the concerned population was later one of the main antecedents of World War II. The Treaty of Trianon was signed between the Allied Forces and Kingdom of Hungary. Király, Béla K. and László Veszprémy, eds. After the Romanian Army advanced beyond this cease-fire line, the Entente powers asked Hungary (Vix Note) to acknowledge the new Romanian territorial gains by a new line set along the Tisza river. In spite of the country being under Allied blockade, the Hungarian Soviet Republic was formed and the Hungarian Red Army was rapidly set up. [92], After the treaty, the percentage and the absolute number of all Hungarian populations outside of Hungary decreased in the next decades (although, some of these populations also recorded temporary increase of the absolute population number). The Kingdom of Hungary was the main supplier of wheat, rye, barley and other various goods in the empire and these comprised a large portion of the empire's exports. See/download bungalow rates Wooden bungalows Trianon Capacity 4 People. Many former Austro-Hungarian officers re-enlisted for patriotic reasons. Within the borders of "Hungary proper" numerous ethnic minorities were present: 16.1% Romanians, 10.5% Slovaks, 10.4% Germans, 2.5% Ruthenians, 2.5% Serbs and 8% others. King Charles had no other option than the appointment of Mihály Károlyi as prime minister of Hungary. Some conditions of the Treaty were similar to those imposed on Germany by the Treaty of Versailles. | Senza Autore | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. Industrial workers from Budapest volunteered. The communist government followed the Soviet model: the party established its terror groups (like the infamous Lenin Boys) to "overcome the obstacles" in the Hungarian countryside. 1920 Június 4. The Hungarian Red Army achieved some military success early on: under the leadership of Colonel Aurél Stromfeld, it ousted Czechoslovak troops from the north and planned to march against the Romanian Army in the east. [65] According to some opinions, the Allies drafted the outline of the new frontiers[66] with little or no regard to the historical, cultural, ethnic, geographic, economic and strategic aspects of the region. [112] President Wilson initially supported the outline of a border that would have more respect to ethnic distribution of population based on the Coolidge Report, led by A. C. Coolidge, a Harvard professor, but later gave in, due to changing international politics and as a courtesy to other allies.[115]. On 31 October 1918, in mid of armistice negotiations, the Aster Revolution in Budapest brought liberal Hungarian aristocrat Count Mihály Károlyi, a supporter of the Allied Powers, to power. Il trattato venne firmato il 4 giugno 1920 nel palazzo del Grand Trianon di Versailles (Francia). p.37. [54] The United States did not ratify the Treaty of Trianon. The Hungarian Red Army recruited men between 19–25 years of age. When the French promised the Hungarian government that Romanian forces would withdraw from the Tiszántúl, Kun withdrew his remaining military units who had remained loyal after the political fiasco in Upper Hungary. The Austro-Hungarian Empire was one economic unit with autarkic characteristics[121][122] during its golden age and therefore achieved rapid growth, especially in the early 20th century when GNP grew by 1.76%. [20], The minority ethnic groups of the pre-war kingdom were the major beneficiaries. [117] The perceived humiliation of the treaty became a dominant theme in inter-war Hungarian politics, analogous with the German reaction to the Treaty of Versailles. For Hungarian public opinion, the fact that almost three-fourths of the pre-war kingdom's territory and a significant number of ethnic Hungarians were assigned to neighbouring countries triggered considerable bitterness. The 1919 and 1920 Transylvanian censuses indicate a smaller Hungarian minority (26.5% / 25.5%). Post-Trianon Hungary possessed 90% of the engineering and printing industry of the pre-war Kingdom, while only 11% of timber and 16% of iron was retained. [citation needed] Other important factors were the Hungarian migration from the neighbouring states to Hungary or to some western countries as well as decreased birth rate of Hungarian populations. Come il generale francese Ferdinand Foch commentò: "Questa non è la pace, ma solo un armistizio per 20 anni"[1]. La ĉi-suba teksto estas aŭtomata traduko de la artikolo Treaty of Trianon article en la angla Vikipedio, farita per la sistemo GramTrans on 2017-08-23 15:01:21. G. Gratz and R. Schuller, Die Wirtschaftliche Zusammenbruch Oesterreich Ungarns (Vienna. The Great People's Assembly of Serbs, Bunjevci, and other Slavs from Banat, Bácska and Baranya declared union of this region with Serbia on 25 November 1918. Béla Kun, leader of the Hungarian Soviet Republic, then turned the Hungarian Red Army on the Romanian Army and attacked at the Tisza river on 20 July 1919. [18] Two alliances faced off, the Central Powers (led by Germany) and the Triple Entente (led by Britain, France and Russia). [7][8][9][10] The treaty limited Hungary's army to 35,000 officers and men, and the Austro-Hungarian Navy ceased to exist. or "Everything back!"). During the war, Károlyi led a small but very active pacifist anti-war maverick faction in the Hungarian parliament. In their eyes, that was for the damned in Hell." Most Hungarians preferred to maintain the territorial integrity of the pre-war kingdom. Kurzfassung: Der Friedensvertrag von Trianon regelte nach dem Ersten Weltkrieg die Bedingungen für Ungarn.Er ist einer der Pariser Vorortverträge, die den Krieg formal beendeten.. Ungarn wurde Ende 1919 nach Paris zu den Friedensverhandlungen eingeladen. Ελέγξτε τις μεταφράσεις του "Trattato del Trianon" στα Ελληνικά. The Trianon-treaty was the result of negotiations between Hungary and several countries of the Entente. Another reason why the victorious Allies decided to dissolve the Central-European great power, Austria-Hungary, a strong German supporter and fast developing region, was to prevent Germany from acquiring substantial influence in the future. Published by C. Scribner's sons, 1937 Un'ulteriore disposizione stabiliva che in Ungheria non potessero essere costruite ferrovie con più di un binario. [65] This opinion was not taken into account during the negotiations. Furthermore, they believed the treaty would help toward a new era of dependence on international law, the fraternity of nations, equal rights, and human liberty as well as aid civilisation in the effort to free humanity from international violence.[71]. In addition, 21% of the Germans spoke both Slovak and Hungarian beside German. As a consequence of the treaty, all the competitive industries of the former empire were compelled to close doors, as great capacity was met by negligible demand owing to economic barriers presented in the form of the newly defined borders. By Domokos G. Kosáry, Steven Béla Várdy, Danubian Research Center It settled a small border dispute between Austria and Hungary in 1921, that was later known as the Sopron plebiscite. Rispetto al Regno di Ungheria (già facente parte dell'Impero austro-ungarico), i confini dell'Ungheria uscita dalla guerra non comprendevano: I confini definitivi vennero delineati dal trattato del Trianon nel 1920. Ansonsten wird der Vertrag von Trianon für uns alle etwas symbolisieren, das nicht gut ist. Traduzioni in contesto per "Trianon" in italiano-tedesco da Reverso Context: In caso contrario, il trattato di Trianon finirà per rappresentare per tutti noi un ricordo tutt'altro che positivo. After World War II approximately 200,000 Germans were deported to Germany, according to the decree of the Potsdam Conference. [123] (That level of growth compared very favourably to that of other European nations such as Britain (1.00%), France (1.06%), and Germany (1.51%).) In addition, the structure of its economy collapsed, because it had relied on other parts of the pre-war Kingdom. L'esito fu il raggiungimento di un'alleanza con le Potenze dell'Asse, le uniche a mostrarsi favorevoli ad una revisione del trattato del Trianon. The Allies were indifferent as to the exact line of the newly defined border between Austria and Hungary. One of the main elements of the treaty was the doctrine of "self-determination of peoples", and it was an attempt to give the non-Hungarians their own national states. In June, the Hungarian Red Army invaded the eastern part of Upper Hungary, claimed by the newly forming Czechoslovak state. Media in category "Treaty of Trianon" The following 29 files are in this category, out of 29 total. The Hungarian Red Army moved its 1st and 5th artillery divisions—40 battalions—to Upper Hungary. The ceasefire line had the character of a temporary international border until the treaty. Gender: masculine; Type: verb, noun; Copy to clipboard; Details / edit; en.wiktionary.org. The army of post-Trianon Hungary was to be restricted to 35,000 men and there was to be no conscription. Terjemahan Trattato del Trianon ke dalam bahasa Inggris "Hungarian Revisionism in Thought and Action, 1920–1941: Plans, Expectations, Reality" in Marina Cattaruzza ed., Várdy, Steven Béla. [104] Compared to the Habsburg Kingdom of Hungary, post-Trianon Hungary had 60% less population and its political and economic footprint in the region was significantly reduced. This happened under the direction of Béla Linder, (minister of war) on 2 November 1918[28][29] The Hungarian Royal Honvéd army still had more than 1,400,000 soldiers[30][31] when Mihály Károlyi was announced as prime minister of Hungary. The French sided with their allies the Romanians who had a long policy of cultural ties to France since the country broke from the Ottoman Empire (due in part to the relative ease at which Romanians could learn French)[114] although Clemenceau personally detested Bratianu. Il trattato del Trianon fu il trattato di pace con cui le potenze vincitrici della prima guerra mondiale stabilirono le sorti del Regno d'Ungheria in seguito alla dissoluzione dell'Impero austro-ungarico. Although the treaty addressed some nationality issues, it also sparked some new ones. The law aimed to provide education, health benefits and employment rights to those, and was said to heal the negative effects of the disastrous 1920 Trianon Treaty.[119][120]. Instead the Allies began a successful counteroffensive and forced the Armistice of 11 November 1918 that resembled a surrender by the Central Powers. All the formal districts of Austria-Hungary used to rely on each other's exports for growth and welfare; by contrast, 5 years after the treaty, traffic of goods between the countries dropped to less than 5% of its former value. Eventualaj ŝanĝoj en la angla originalo estos kaptitaj per regulaj retradukoj. An arbitration committee in 1920 assigned small northern parts of the former Árva and Szepes counties of the Kingdom of Hungary with Polish majority population to Poland. (2018), Rudolf Chmel, "Syndrom of Trianon in Hungarian Foreign Policy and Act on Hungarians Living in Neighboring Countries.". After 1918, Hungary did not have access to the sea, which pre-war Hungary formerly had directly through the Rijeka coastline and indirectly through Croatia-Slavonia. [3] However, it is generally accepted that the largest ethnic group in the Kingdom of Hungary in this time were the Hungarians. "Hungary on a fixed course: An outline of Hungarian history, 1918–1945." ", Győri, Róbert, and Charles WJ Withers. 100 Jahre Erster Weltkrieg Ungarns Trauma von Trianon. [42][43] The Hungarian Soviet Republic was a small communist rump state. Considering the size of discrepancies, some demographers are on the opinion that these censuses were somewhat biased in the favour of the respective ruling nation.[86]. While the territories that were now outside Hungary's borders had non-Hungarian majorities overall, there also existed some sizeable areas with a majority of Hungarians, largely near the newly defined borders. It proved to be immensely challenging for the successor states to successfully transform their economies to adapt to the new circumstances. Hanák, Peter. Importance of Hungary. The Treaty was signed in 1920 by the corresponding parties. Vertrag von Trianon . Facts", "Constitution of Union between Croatia-Slavonia and Hungary", "Prague Congress of Oppressed nations, Details that Austrian censor suppressed – Text of revolutionary proclamation", "Browse Hungary's detailed ethnographic map made for the Treaty of Trianon online", "Hungarians in Transylvania between 1870 and 1995", The Hidden Europe: What Eastern Europeans Can Teach Us, Ethnic Groups and Population Changes in Twentieth-century Central-Eastern Europe: History, Data, and Analysis, "The Czechoslovak government policy and population exchange (A csehszlovák kormánypolitika és a lakosságcsere)", "Official Letter from Tom Lantos to Robert Fico", "U.S. lawmaker blames Slovak government for ethnically motivated attacks on Hungarians", "Kosovo's Actions Hearten a Hungarian Enclave", Ethnic map of Kingdom of Hungary without Croatia-Slavonia, "NATO Seen Favorably Across Member States", 1914-1918-online. The Romanians joined their ethnic brethren in Romania, while the Slovaks, Serbs and Croats helped establish nation-states of their own (Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia). [109] In the Treaty of Bucharest (1916) Romania was promised Transylvania and some other territories to the east of river Tisza, provided that she attacked Austria-Hungary from the south-east, where defences were weak. In comparison, by 1921 the new Czechoslovak state reached 75% of its pre-war production owing to their favourable position among the victors, and greater associated access to international rehabilitation resources. Se vi volas enigi tiun artikolon en la originalan Esperanto-Vikipedion, vi povas uzi nian specialan redakt-interfacon. Peter Hanák, "Hungary on a fixed course: An outline of Hungarian history, 1918–1945." "Trianon and the Predestination of Hungarian Politics: A Historiography of Hungarian Revisionism, 1918–1944." The Hungarian politicians claimed that they were ready to give the non-Hungarian ethnicities a great deal of autonomy. Trattato del Trianon; trattato di adesione CE; trattato di adesione UE; Trattato di Amiens; trattato di Amsterdam; Trattato di Amsterdam; trattato magyar fordítás és meghatározás "trattato", olasz-magyar szótár online. The treaty regulated the status of an independent Hungarian state and defined its borders. Alcuni articoli del trattato richiesero a tutte le parti contraenti di rispettare vari diritti delle minoranze nazionali presenti entro i suoi confini. In 1918 Germany tried to overwhelm the Allies on the Western Front; it failed. The American war aim was end aggressive militarism as shown by Berlin and Vienna. Europarl8 Europarl8 . Il trattato fu ritenuto unilaterale e ingiusto anche dai contemporanei e secondo alcuni storici contribuì in modo significativo allo scoppio della Seconda guerra mondiale. For example, in the territory what is today Slovakia (then part of Upper Hungary) 18% of the Slovaks, 33% of the Hungarians and 65% of the Germans were bilingual. For Hungarians, the outer territories were not seen as colonial territories, but rather part of the core national territory. The Hungarian state was restored by the Entente powers, helping Admiral Horthy into power in November 1919. Digitized 19 June 2008 Hi prengueren part, a més del país interessat, les potències vencedores i llurs associats . Point ten announced Wilson's "wish" that the peoples of the Austria-Hungary be given autonomy—a point that Vienna rejected.[23]. [107] The underlying reason for the decision was a secret pact between The Entente and Romania. According to the 1910 census, speakers of the Hungarian language included approximately 48% of the entire population of the kingdom, and 54% of the population of the territory referred to as "Hungary proper", i.e. Il trattato venne firmato il 4 giugno 1920 nel palazzo del Grand Trianon di Versailles (Francia) [110] Hungary attracted international media attention in 1999 for passing the "status law" concerning estimated three-million ethnic Hungarian minorities in neighbouring Romania, Slovakia, Serbia and Montenegro, Croatia, Slovenia and Ukraine. After a Hungarian-Czechoslovak cease-fire signed on 1 July 1919, the Hungarian Red Army left parts of Slovakia by 4 July, as the Entente powers promised to invite a Hungarian delegation to the Versailles Peace Conference. By the arbitrations of Germany and Italy, Hungary expanded its borders towards neighbouring countries before and during World War II. 443 Il trauma del trattato, la perdita del territorio, delle risorse economiche, e della popolazione costrinsero l'Ungheria a perseguire una politica irredenta nel periodo interbellico. This could be attributed to the introduction of aggressive nationalistic policies by local political leaders. Document 246. [112] The Hungarians did not see it this way because the newly defined borders did not fully respect territorial distribution of ethnic groups,[113] with areas where there were Hungarian majorities[113] outside the new borders. Il numero di ungheresi in queste province, basato sul censimento del 1910 era: La popolazione ungherese in tutte queste regioni diminuì dopo il trattato, anche se minoranze ungheresi risiedono ancora oggi nei paesi limitrofi. English Otherwise, the Treaty of Trianon will come to represent for all of us something that is not good Il trattato del Trianon fu il trattato di pace con cui le potenze vincitrici della prima guerra mondiale stabilirono le sorti del Regno d'Ungheria in seguito alla dissoluzione dell' Impero austro-ungarico. The men of the Hungarian Red Army were recruited mainly from the volunteers of the Budapest proletariat. Original from the University of California In caso contrario, il trattato di Trianon finirà per rappresentare per tutti noi un ricordo tutt'altro che positivo. [52] The treaty of peace in final form was submitted to the Hungarians on 6 May and signed by them in Grand Trianon[53] on 4 June 1920, entering into force on 26 July 1921. The Treaty of Trianon (French: Traité de Trianon, Hungarian: Trianoni békeszerződés) was prepared at the Paris Peace Conference and was signed in the Grand Trianon Palace in Versailles on 4 June 1920. [41] Kun formed a social democratic, communist coalition government and proclaimed the Hungarian Soviet Republic. trattato . The Austro-Hungarian monarchy politically collapsed and disintegrated as a result of a defeat in the Italian Front (World War I). The main reasons of this process were both spontaneous assimilation and the deliberate Magyarization policy of the state. President Woodrow Wilson acted as an independent force and his Fourteen Points was accepted by Germany as a basis for the armistice of November 1918. 1778-79: Teatro privato di Maria Antonietta al Petit Trianon. What happened to Austria in industry happened to Hungary in agriculture where production of grain declined by more than 70%. Under the forced exchange of population between Czechoslovakia and Hungary, approximately 73,000 Slovaks left Hungary and according to different estimations 120,500[94][95] or 45,000[96] Hungarians moved to present day Hungarian territory from Czechoslovakia. [133], With the creation of customs barriers and fragmented protective economies, the economic growth and outlook in the region sharply declined,[134] ultimately culminating in a deep recession. In addition, 61% of arable land, 74% of public roads, 65% of canals, 62% of railroads, 64% of hard surface roads, 83% of pig iron output, 55% of industrial plants, and 67% of credit and banking institutions of the former Kingdom of Hungary lay within the territory of Hungary's neighbours. Digitized 13 November 2008 p. 114, History of the Hungarian Nation Compared with the pre-war Kingdom of Hungary, these temporary borders did not include: The territories of Banat, Bačka and Baranja (which included most of the pre-war Hungarian counties of Baranya, Bács-Bodrog, Torontál, and Temes) came under military control by the Kingdom of Serbia and political control by local South Slavs. ", Pastor, Peter. 1922. With regard to the ethnic issues, the Western powers were aware of the problem posed by the presence of so many Hungarians (and Germans) living outside the new nation-states of Hungary and Austria. This sum sunk to a mere 8.6 million crowns after the treaty took effect and resulted in a starving of capital in other regions of the former empire.[132]. There was also a division of labour present throughout the empire: that is, in the Austrian part of the Monarchy manufacturing industries were highly advanced, while in the Kingdom of Hungary an agroindustrial economy had emerged. Heavy artillery, tanks and air force were prohibited. Some predominantly Hungarian settlements, consisting of more than two million people, were situated in a typically 20–50 km (12–31 mi) wide strip along the new borders in foreign territory. [63][64] This view did not prevail for long, as it was disregarded by the decisive French and British delegates. [24] General Franchet d'Espèrey followed up the victory by overrunning much of the Balkans and by the war's end, his troops had penetrated well into Hungary. A cura della Lega per la revisione del Trattato di Trianon. [6] Though the areas that were allocated to neighbouring countries had a majority of non-Hungarians, in them lived 3.3 million Hungarians – 31% – who were now in a minority status. 1920. június 4. Cfr. L'unica direzione geografica e politica aperta alla politica estera magiara rimase appunto l'Italia fascista, e l'Austria (quindi la Germania nazista dopo l'Anschluss). I confini provvisori dell'Ungheria vennero definiti nel novembre/dicembre 1918. 75% of its former pre-WWI territories (325,411 km2 (125,642 sq mi)) without a fight and was subject to foreign occupation.[32]. [127][128][129] New borders also bisected transport links – in the Kingdom of Hungary the road and railway network had a radial structure, with Budapest in the centre. [98][99][100] Areas with significant Hungarian populations included the Székely Land[101] in Eastern Transylvania, the area along the newly defined Romanian-Hungarian border (cities of Arad, Oradea), the area north of the newly defined Czechoslovakian–Hungarian border (Komárno, Csallóköz), southern parts of Subcarpathia and northern parts of Vojvodina. [citation needed] During the rule of Károlyi's pacifist cabinet, Hungary lost the control over approx. Due to the full disarmament of its army, Hungary was to remain without a national defence at a time of particular vulnerability. 0 Maradhat ez így?.jpg 592 × 812; 448 KB. Róbert Győri, and Charles WJ Withers, "Trianon and its aftermath: British geography and the 'dismemberment’of Hungary, c. 1915-c. Vedere/scaricare le tariffe dei bungalow Bungalow in legno Trianon Capacità 4 Persone. Le condizioni militari furono simili a quelle imposte alla Germania dal trattato di Versailles (1919); l'esercito ungherese venne limitato a 35.000 uomini e dovette rinunciare alla coscrizione obbligatoria. Der Vertrag von Trianon, auch Friedensvertrag von Trianon oder Friedensdiktat von Trianon, war einer der Pariser Vorortverträge, die den Ersten Weltkrieg formal beendeten. The last alliance was the so called Little Entente (Südosteuropa Lexikon 354, Kertesz 45). [21][22] It called for a just and democratic peace uncompromised by territorial annexation. [19] Irredentism—that is the demand for reunification of Hungarian peoples became a central theme of Hungarian politics and diplomacy. Guarda gli esempi di traduzione di Trattato del Trianon nelle frasi, ascolta la pronuncia e impara la grammatica. The United States never formally joined the Allies. Ad es. Iván T. Berend and G. Ranki, Economic Development of East Central Europe (New York, 1974). It formally ended World War I between most of the Allies of World War I and the Kingdom of Hungary. A seguito del Trattato di Trianon, l'Ungheria perse i suoi territori più settentrionali. Bilingualism was also disappearing. Hence, much of the rail cargo traffic of the emergent states was virtually paralysed. The option of partition along ethnic lines as an alternative was rejected.[102]. [26] He even organized covert contacts with British and French diplomats in Switzerland during the war. After the military victory of Croatian forces led by, Badescu, Ilie. The Romanian Army attacked the Hungarian flank with troops from the 16th Infantry Division and the Second Vânători Division, aiming to maintain contact with the Czechoslovak Army. Panduan pengucapan: Pelajari cara mengucapkan Trattato del Trianon dalam Bahasa Italia dari penutur aslinya. Over the last century, concerns have occasionally been raised about the treatment of these ethnic Hungarian communities in the neighbouring states. These decisions and their consequences have been the cause of deep resentment in Hungary ever since. It was signed on June 4, 1920, at the Trianon Palace at Versailles, France . Anna Menyhért, "The Image of the "Maimed Hungary" in 20th Century Cultural Memory and the 21st Century Consequences of an Unresolved Collective Trauma: The Impact of the Treaty of Trianon." The Romanian delegation to Versailles feared in 1919 that the Allies were beginning to favour the partition of Transylvania along ethnic lines to reduce the potential exodus[citation needed] and Prime Minister Ion I. C. Brătianu even summoned British-born Queen Marie to France to strengthen their case. The lack of specialisation adversely affected the whole Danube-Carpathian region and caused a distinct setback of growth and development compared to the West as well as high financial vulnerability and instability.[137][138]. Gli attori principali del trattato furono le potenze vincitrici, i loro alleati e la parte sconfitta. Il 31 ottobre 1918, a Timișoara venne proclamata la Repubblica del Banato e il governo ungherese ne riconobbe l'indipendenza. and Mindent vissza! [80] Owen Johnson, an American historian, accepts the numbers of the earlier censuses up to the one in 1900, according to which the proportion of the Hungarians was 51.4%,[76] but he neglects the 1910 census as he thinks the changes since the last census are too big. Il trattato venne firmato il 4 giugno 1920 nel palazzo del Grande Trianon di Versailles, in Francia.Gli attori principali del trattato furono le potenze vincitrici, i loro alleati, e la parte sconfitta. By Edwin A. Pratt, The Rise of Rail-Power in War and Conquest, Role in the Weimar Republic's hyperinflation, Franco-Soviet Treaty of Mutual Assistance, Soviet–Czechoslovakia Treaty of Mutual Assistance, Soviet–British–French Moscow negotiations, ceasefire lines established in November–December 1918, Czechoslovak Regiments were formed in the Italian Army, annexations of territories after the breakup of Yugoslavia, "Text of the Treaty, Treaty of Peace Between The Allied and Associated Powers and Hungary And Protocol and Declaration, Signed at Trianon June 4, 1920", "East on the Danube: Hungary's Tragic Century", "AZ ŐRVIDÉKI (BURGENLANDI) MAGYARSÁG SORSA", http://adatbank.sk/lexikon/pozsonyi-hidfo/, "Trianon volt az utolsó csepp – A Magyar Királyság sorsa már jóval a békeszerződés aláírása előtt eldőlt", "Grand Trianon in Versailles Palace.

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